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{{Unreferenced|date=October__NOTOC__ 2008}}__NOEDITSECTION__
{{ otheruses4|the maneuver|thestyle="margin-top: military5px; operation|Operationpadding: 10px; border-left: 2px solid darkblue; border-top: 2px solid darkblue; border-right: 2px solid darkblue; border-bottom: 2px solid darkblue; background:#ef2" Barrelwidth="100%" Roll}}cellpadding="10"
A '''barrel roll''' is a maneuver in which an [[Physical body|object]] (usually an [[airplane]] or [[roller coaster]]) makes a complete [[rotation]] on its longitudinal axis while following a [[helix|helical]] path, approximately maintaining its original direction. The [[G-force]] is kept positive (but not constant) on the object throughout the maneuver, commonly not more than 2-3 G, and no less than 0.5 G.
 
[[Image:Coasterbarrelroll.jpg{|thumb|400px|right|A barrel roll element on Gerstlauer's [[Speed (Oakwood)|Speed]]width="100%" rollercellspacing="0" coaster]]cellpadding="0"
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==Etymology==<!-- ########## Welcome! ###########-->
The<div barrelid="Welcome" rollclass="Welcome"><div isstyle="padding:0.5em; so-named because an aircraft executing this maneuver looks as though it were flying with its wheels running along the inside edge of a barrelmargin:0.5em A0 more; commonborder:1px modernsolid visualizationdarkblue;background-color:white; iswidth:98%; to imagine an airplane trying to fly in a horizontal corkscrew around the line of the direction of travel.float:left">
 
==Aviation=={{English|translation}}
In aviation, the maneuver includes a constant variation of altitude in all three axes, and at the midpoint (top) of the roll, the aircraft is flying inverted, with the nose pointing at a 90-degree angle ("sideways") to the general path of flight. The term "barrel roll" is frequently used, incorrectly, to refer to any roll by an airplane (see [[aileron roll]]), or to a helical roll in which the nose remains pointed generally along the flight path. In fact, the barrel roll is a specific and difficult maneuver; a combination of a roll and a loop. One advantage of the barrel roll over the aileron roll is that it is possible to maintain positive "g" force throughout the maneuver. (If the interior is not immaculately clean any loose material will be thrown about under negative g force and also the aircraft fuel flow may be momentarily interrupted.)
 
Barrel rolling is not used exclusively in aerobatic competition. Both the [[Boeing 707]] and [[Concorde]] prototypes were barrel rolled during testingImage:Coat_of_arms_of_Tonga. The 707 was rolled just once by [[Alvin M. Johnstonsvg|Tex Johnstonright|100px]] while Concorde was rolled multiple times by her test pilots, including [[Jean Franchi]] and [[Brian Walpole]].
[[Image:Flag of Tonga.svg|100px]]
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'''Ko e kotoa ʻo ha'a tangata ʻoku fānauʻi mai ʻoku tauʻatāina pea tatau ʻi he ngeia mo e ngaahi totonu. Naʻe fakanāunauʻi kinautolu ʻaki ʻa e ʻatamai mo e konisenisi pea ʻoku totonu ke nau feohi ʻi he laumālie ʻo e nofo fakatautehina.'''
 
One of the best and most accurate depictions of a barrel roll in any aviation movie occurred in the 1966 film *''[[TheThis Blueis Max]]'',the whenwikipedia one offor the two German pilots flying a pairlanguage of [[FokkerTONGA, Dr.I]] triplanes executes onePolynesia, asSouth seen from directly behind the pair of aircraft in the filmPacific.''
*''Ceci est la wikipedia en langue TONGA, Polynésie, Pacifique Sud.''
*''Добро пожаловать в Википедию на тонганском языке, официальном языке Королевства Тонга (Полинезия, южная часть Тихого океана).''
*''Ko e wikipedia ʻeni maʻa lea fakatonga ʻi TONGA ni, ʻi Polinisia, mo e muli.''
 
===Military'''<font attack==color="#FF0000">Ko e lahi ʻo e [[Special:Allpages|ngaahi kupu kotoa]] he taimí ni: [[Special:Statistics|{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}]].</font>'''
A ''barrel roll attack'' is a military maneuver that improves the attacker's offensive position and prevents the attacker from overshooting. In this maneuver the defender breaks one direction and so the attacker performs a partial barrel roll in the opposite direction from the defender's break then climbs to reduce closing speed. Finally the attacker completes the roll so he is level again and turns in behind the defender. For example, the [[P-47 Thunderbolt]] USAAF World War II fighter could be barrel rolled in a dogfight, when chased by Luftwaffe fighters, particularly the [[Focke-Wulf Fw 190]], to place itself on an enemy's tail.
 
==Skiing==|-
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The<!-- barrel########## rollNgaahi isfaʻahinga alahi challenging########## maneuver to execute on [[skis]]. It is more commonly referred to as a "Lincoln loop" The Trick was named after 1970's [[Freestyle Skiing|hot dogging]] pioneer Eddie Lincoln. The Lincoln Loop is essentially a cartwheel or sideways roll in the air.-->
<div style="padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
== Ngaahi faʻahinga lahi ==
===[[:Category:Faiva & Tohi|Faiva & Tohi]]===
[[:Category:Faiva fakatonga|Faiva fakatonga]] — [[:category:Hiva fakatonga|Hiva fakatonga]] — [[:Category:Lea fakatonga|Lea fakatonga]] — mo e hā fua
 
=== See also [[:Category:Fakapuleʻanga|Fakapuleʻanga]]===
*[[Inline:Category:Palemia twistʻo Tonga|Palemia ʻo Tonga]] — mo e hā fua
*[[Star Fox 64]]
*[[Roller coaster]]
*[[Skiing]]
 
=== External links[[:Category:Hisitōlia|Hisitōlia]] ===
*[http[:Category://www.aviationexplorer.com/707_roll_video.htmHisitōlia 707ʻo "DASHTonga|Hisitōlia 80"ʻo completesTonga]] a barrel roll during early airline flight testing to show the aircraft's abilities[[:Category:Talatukufakaholo|Talatukufakaholo]] (note that this was not an "aileron roll" as the vehicle maintained positive ''g'' forcesmo ate all times)fua
*[http:<//www.abc-of-skiing.com/skiing-tricks/lincoln-loop.asp Lincoln Loop] (skiing trick)div>
* [http://www.fulldeflection.com Aerobatic maneuver website]
*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17GfXQ2wCFU Avro Vulcan Roll]
 
[[Category:Roller<!-- coaster########## elements]]Kakai ########## -->
[[Category<div style="padding:Aerial0.5em; maneuvers]]margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
=== [[:Category:Kakai|Kakai]] ===
[[:Category:Fale ʻalo|Fale ʻalo]] — [[:Category:Houʻeiki|Houʻeiki]] — [[:Category:Tuʻi|Tuʻi]] — [[:Category:Nōpele|Kau nōpele ʻe 33]] — [[:Category:Kauhalaʻuta|Kauhalaʻuta mo hono haʻá]] — [[:Category:Kauhalalalo|Kauhalalalo mo hono haʻa]] — [[:Category:Haʻa (toenga)|Toenga ʻo e ngaahi haʻa]] — [[:Category:Matāpule maʻu tofiʻa|Matāpule maʻu tofiʻa]] —
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[[de<div style="padding:Fassrolle]]0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
=== [[ja:バレルロール (マニューバ)Category:Lotu|Lotu]] ===
[[ru:Бочка (высший пилотаж)Category:Talatupuʻa|Talatupuʻa]] — mo e hā fua
</div>
 
<!-- ########## Saienisi ########## -->
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=== [[:Category:Saienisi|Saienisi]] ===
[[:Category:Saienisi ʻo e moʻui|Saienisi ʻo e moʻui]] — [[:Category:Saienisi ʻo e ʻakau|Saienisi ʻo e ʻakau]] — [[:Category:Saienisi ʻo e monumanu|Saienisi ʻo e monumanu]] — [[:Category:saienisi fakamatelie|Saienisi fakamatelie]] — [[:Category:Saienisi kemi|Saienisi kemi]] — [[:Category:Saienisi ʻo e fetuʻu|Saienisi ʻo e fetuʻu]] — [[:Category:Meʻa fakaengāue|Meʻa fakaengāue]] — mo e hā fua
</div>
 
<!-- ########## Siokālafi ########## -->
<div style="padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
===[[:Category:Siokālafi|Siokālafi]]===
[[:Category:Siokālafi ʻo Tonga|Siokālafi ʻo Tonga]] — mo e hā fua
<div style="font-size:80%">[[:Category:Haʻapai|Haʻapai]] — [[:Category:Ongo Niua|Ongo Niua]] — [[:Category:Tongatapu & takatakai|Tongatapu & takatakai]] — [[:Category:Vavaʻu|Vavaʻu]]</div>
</div>
 
<!-- ########## ʻEkonomika ########## -->
<div style="padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
=== [[:Category:ʻekonomika|ʻEkonomika]] ===
</div>
 
<!-- ########## Akoʻanga ########## -->
<div style="padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
=== [[:Category:vaʻingako|Vaʻinga & Ako]] ===
[[:Category:Akoʻanga|Akoʻanga]] — mo e hā fua
</div>
 
<!-- ########## Tohi hokohoko ########## -->
<div style="padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em 0 ; border:1px solid darkblue;background-color:white; width:98%; float:left">
===[[:Category:Ngaahi tohi hokohoko|Tohi hokohoko]]===
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<!-- ########## Ko e ʻata ʻo e ʻahó ni ########## -->
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== Ko e ʻata ʻo e ʻahó ni==
{{Peesi tali fiefia/ʻataʻaho-{{CURRENTMONTH}}-{{CURRENTDAY}}|to}} <div style="float:right">[[:Category:ʻataʻaho|(kotoa)]]</div>
</div>
 
<!-- ########## Ngaahi faʻahinga makehe ########## -->
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== Ngaahi faʻahinga makehe ==
*[[Special:Categories|Ngaahi faʻahinga kotoa ʻoku ngāueʻaki]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi lea ʻo e kau ʻetita|Ngaahi lea ʻo e kau ʻetita]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi kupu ʻoku lahi sipelahalaʻi|Ngaahi kupu ʻoku fuʻu lahi sipelahalaʻi]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi kupu ʻoku potuʻi pē|Ngaahi kupu ʻoku potuʻi pē]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi kupu tali liliu ʻi he lea fakatonga|Ngaahi kupu tali liliu ʻi he lea fakatonga]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi kupu fakaʻuhingakehe|Ngaahi kupu fakaʻuhingakehe]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi fili maʻa e tāmateʻi vave|Ngaahi fili maʻa e tāmateʻi vave]]
*[[:Category:Ngaahi fili maʻa e tāmateʻi ʻosi honau talanoa|Ngaahi fili maʻa e tāmateʻi ʻosi honau talanoa]]
*[[Wikipedia:Administrators|Ngaahi peesi fakawikipedia maʻa e fekau]] mo e hā fua
*[[Wikipedia:Nospam|Ngaahi peesi maluʻi]]
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<!-- ########## FIEMAʻU ########## -->
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== FIEMAʻU ==
Kau ʻetita fie liliu ʻa e ngaahi kupu ʻi he lea fakapilitānia ki he lea fakatonga, vakai ki he hokohoko ʻi he [[Wikipedia:Fale_fakataha|Fale fakataha]].
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